Potential water treatment processes for inorganic contaminants can be grouped into three categories: physical, chemical, and biological.
Typical contaminants of concern in industrial waters include suspended metals, dissolved metals, nitrate, sulfate, and cyanide. Common metals and metalloids include arsenic, antimony, selenium, lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc.
Physical treatment technologies can be further divided into the following categories:
Iron and manganese cause stains and tastes in water. One way to remove both of these elements from water is using oxidizing filters.
Arsenic is a naturally occurring contaminant found in groundwater.
Nitrates (NO3-) is a naturally occuring compound found in groundwater. They can also come from man-made sources, especially in areas heavy in agriculture.
Perchlorate is an emerging drinking water contaminant that is said to affect the thyroid function in humans leading to hypothyroidism.
In order to safeguard against the accidental discharge of poisonous chlorine gas, a wet or dry chlorine scrubbing system is typically required as part of a waste water treatment system.
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